This report was prepared as part of a project commissioned by the Lichfield District Council waste services entitled Successful Composting Experiments and Selected Collections. Within the framework of this project, several examples of successful centralized or internal composting systems were selected in six Member States: Spain (E), France (F), Ireland (IRL), Italy (I), Portugal (P) and the United Kingdom (Great Britain). A case study was conducted for each sector, which, in particular, identifies the reasons for this success.
The aim of this work is to provide local authorities in Member States with information to help them successfully implement cost-effective channels for composting at home or for the selective collection of biodegradable waste in their localities. This case study report describes a series of initiatives identified in each of the Member States covered in this brochure. The main success factors in each case and for all the operations described are summarized in the manual in order to present these key parameters to other local authorities planning to develop such channels. The dissemination of information about cases of selective collection and composting within the country should be used by other local authorities to achieve the objectives of diversion from the landfill. This project aims to demonstrate that such operations are feasible and inexpensive, and to encourage the adoption of approaches to the disposal of biodegradable waste from landfills.
The European waste management strategy establishes a hierarchical preference for various options for waste treatment in the following order: “prevention, reuse, recycling of materials, energy recovery, safe disposal”. This hierarchy is based on the effectiveness of these various options in relation to the overall goal of sustainable development. In order to move towards a more sustainable waste management, waste management methods must move up the hierarchy in the face of a situation where some European countries currently have a significant share of waste. still buried.
The EC waste disposal directive is aimed at ensuring high standards of waste management in the European Union and contributing to the prevention by composting and biogasification of biodegradable waste, as well as recycling. recycling. The directive contains provisions aimed at reducing the disposal of biodegradable waste in order to avoid damage to the environment caused by the release of degradable substances (landfill gas, including methane, as well as leachate).
The directive includes the objectives of diverting biodegradable waste from landfills, which involves sorting, recycling of materials and energy recovery. Some Member States have already imposed restrictions on the amount of biodegradable waste going to landfill.
The successful diversion of biodegradable waste from landfills depends on the quality of sorting of the waste at the source. Although the biodegradable fraction of the waste can be recovered from mixed waste, this is tedious work and the final product is usually contaminated. Sorting the sources makes it possible to obtain a high-quality pure product for composting and the prospects for obtaining an unpolluted final product. Recycled clean waste is more likely to meet applicable quality standards and is suitable for sale or use, while delivering appropriate environmental benefits.
Advantages of using recycling bins. Using final compost can replace other tillage products, such as peat for gardens and agriculture. Sorting biodegradable waste at the source also contributes to composting or composting in small towns or cities. This biodegradable waste processing chain has two main advantages: the environmental impact of the transport and waste treatment are prevented, and, as a rule, residents use compost, which allows you to close the recycling cycle and get environmental benefits, since they avoid the use of other products (unlike problems, sometimes arising as a result of a market search for compost of central production).
In addition, the selection of their own waste helps to raise awareness and develop a sense of responsibility among residents regarding their waste. In general, composting is an adaptable technique and is suitable for waste treatment in various socio-economic and geographical situations. Despite a wide range of processing technologies from simple home composting to a centralized high-tech system, the technique and the corresponding selective collection system can be implemented relatively simply and inexpensively. Public recognition of composting streams is also important compared to other methods such as incineration or landfill.